It’s astronomy’s ‘low-season’ in June and July, as the longer hours of daylight limit truly dark skies to the wee small hours.
While it may not get completely dark while you are awake, make the most of clear nights. Just after sunset is one of my favourite times to ‘look up’, as you notice the first, brightest stars pop out, as the night sky starts to awaken. It’s also the right time of year to spot noctilucent clouds – these high-altitude clouds can appear dazzlingly bright, electric blue in the sky, up to 2 hours after sundown (or before sunrise) and above the northwest horizon. We’re very well placed for the opportunity to see NLCs on Scilly, with such low, open horizons and zero light pollution.
Venus is bright all month, also above the northwest horizon, from about half an hour after sundown. It’s hard to miss at magnitude -3.8. Though it might seem odd, the lower the number, the brighter the object. So -3.8 Venus appears significantly brighter than Mars, at magnitude +1.8 from the middle of June.
You can see our solar system’s planets because they reflect light, not emit it: the light you see is technically the Sun’s. There’s a good opportunity to compare the difference in planetary magnitude on 30 June, after 11pm, as Mars and Venus can be seen close together (approximately an outstretched palm apart) above the west-northwest horizon.
With all this northwesterly sky action, it would be a good opportunity to head up to St Martin’s Daymark with a blanket and a flask of something!
Scilly Dark Skies Week, 2-9 October 2021
We’ve announced the line-up for our Scilly Dark Skies Week 2021. Originally planned for 2020 but postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we’re delighted to be going ahead on St Martin’s this year with the same speakers.
We are thrilled to welcome internationally renowned astrophotographer Damian Peach, who has appeared on the BBC and the Discovery Channel. Peach's work has been used by NASA and the ESA to illustrate what ground-based telescopes can achieve in photographing the planets. Damian will lead a session on high-resolution astrophotography, sharing some of his many images, produced from the world’s largest telescopes.
We’re also joined by Cornwall-based astronomer Carolyn Kennett who will be exploring the fascinating realm of astro-archaeology, the ancient connections between Scilly’s land and sky; Scilly Walks’ Katharine Sawyer will lead us on a walk to explore some of St Martins’ ancient sites with possible connections to the heavens. We couldn’t do Dark Skies Week without COSMOS regulars Ian Morison, now in his 54th year at the University of Manchester’s Jodrell Bank Observatory, and Mark Holmes of High Legh Community Observatory, who is ultimately to thank for helping us get our observatory plans off the ground!
Tickets are £175 for the week, which includes daily workshops and nightly talks, plus guided stargazing.
As ever, get in touch at email@example.com if you have any questions about visiting us or the night sky in Scilly.
Here's what we're looking at this month. Click to download this as a PDF.
Here's what we're looking at in our skies this month. Click here to download this as a PDF.
Here on St Martin's, we community astronomers have our metaphorical telescopes pointing toward a distant galaxy, Optimism – rarely seen in 2020, but once again appearing in view in our equally metaphorical eyepieces. It's been refreshing to see new faces on the island as we tentatively take steps towards normality - though that concept is now more loaded. We are delighted that we will be open again regularly to the public this year, and we can’t wait to welcome more of you to our observatory.
The observatory will be open to the public on Tuesday nights and Friday afternoons, from the week commencing 17 May until the end of October 2021. This is, of course, subject to government guidelines regarding COVID-19. We will be running sessions slightly differently this year, with smaller group sizes and shorter session lengths. Tuesday evenings, you can book in at 8 or 9pm for a 50 minute session. Friday afternoons will be drop-ins – this may change if we suddenly find that lots of people are choosing to come to these, but historically they have been quieter. We have a super solar telescope that can only be used during the day, and it’s quite something to take a (safe) closer look at our nearest star, the Sun, through an eyepiece. We used it earlier today, and observed first-hand some 'oooh'-inducing solar flares. Solar-gazing is a great experience for all ages – so it’s worth considering a visit to us on a Friday afternoon, especially as full darkness is not guaranteed (!) by 10pm on Scilly in the summer months.
There's an excellent anecdote of a well-meaning visitor asking why we couldn’t make it darker, at 9pm on a late June night. If I could choose a superpower, the ability to control the movement of the Sun might be one I’d want; that, and the ability to make clouds disappear with a dramatic flourish of my arms.
Unfortunately, we can’t control the weather here, and our regular sessions run rain or shine, light or dark. The astronomy ‘season’ in the UK tends to start in September and runs through till late March, quite out of sync with Scilly’s tourist season! We have lots to show you whenever you visit and we’ll help you leave with more knowledge about the night sky on Scilly – but of course, we’ll be looking through telescopes with you whenever we can.
We're in a bit of an in-between-y season, sky-wise. I'm eagerly waiting for Saturn and Jupiter to be viewable and for the Summer constellations and Milky Way to rise, while the familiar Winter features - Orion, Gemini, Taurus - taunt us by being slightly too low in the dark sky to enjoy their deep-sky delights! Still, a dark sky is always a wondrous, humbling thing on Scilly: there are myriad worlds out there, and aren't we fortunate to see them as we can.
Spring highlights include the supermoons on the night of 26-27 April and 26 May. Supermoons occur when there is a Full Moon coinciding with the Moon being closest to Earth in its elliptical orbit. The Moon can look up to 14% bigger and up to 30% brighter – so it’s well worth gazing at! 4 May sees the peak of activity of the Eta Aquariids meteor shower. These meteors come from the stream of debris left behind by Halley’s Comet. Look out for long streaks of light that might last for several seconds!
To find out more about visiting the observatory, visit our website www.cosmosscilly.co.uk and to book, or if you have any questions, email firstname.lastname@example.org.
It’s good to have something to look forward to, and the upcoming spring skies keep us looking up. Amidst the relentless uncertainty, here, we have some constants: our winter dark skies remain entrancingly dark; cloudless nights haphazardly grace us with jaw-dropping awe. We snatch our stargazing when we can, and, when we do, what a sky.
The start of the year has seen us – with social distancing, and in household bubbles - perform some essential maintenance to the observatory site: pruning the hedges to clear our horizons, clearing tenacious bracken, and of course checking the domes and telescopes are in good working order. It’s felt a good time to ‘refocus’ all round. I’m pleased to report that not only is the observatory now looking spruce, the telescopes are ready for stargazing, whenever that is safe to do so.
When aligning a telescope, you need to be looking at something that you can confidently, consistently identify with the naked eye as well as through magnification. To make it fun, it might as well be something lovely too. At this time of year, the Orion Nebula (aka M42), is the ideal such target. A mere 1300 light years distant, Orion Nebula is a stellar nursery - where stars are literally being born. If you can find the 3 aligned stars of Orion’s Belt, you’re nearly there. Just underneath, you’ll locate Orion’s nebula. With the naked eye, it’s a fuzzy patch of sky. Add in binoculars or a small telescope and you’re in for a mind-bending treat. As ever, slight avert your eyes to get the best of it – our peripheral vision is much more sensitive to light!
Moving a little closer to home, this spring, Mars is one to watch. Our rocky, iron-rich neighbour is easily identified in the night sky by its bright, distinctive orange hue. It’s moving away from us at present, but still prominent in the southwestern night sky after dark. Through a telescope you get the definite sense of its planetary character – shape and surface detail. But with the naked eye and binoculars, it’s still a brilliant spot. On 3 March, Mars nestles stunningly close to the Pleiades – an open cluster in Taurus, also known as the Seven Sisters. By 19 March, Mars will form a loose triangle with the Pleiades and the crescent Moon.
Mars is likely to be in the news again, too. By the end of February, NASA’s latest Mars rover, Perseverance, and helicopter, Ingenuity, will have landed on the red planet. The mission’s aim is to study the Martian soil for signs of life, as well as testing out new remote technology to be utilised by future space projects. By April, Mars should be a relative hive of activity, as the China National Space Administration is also due to land a functional mission – searching for water and returning samples. It looks set to be a remarkable year for science all round!
We hope to have more news about the observatory’s plans for opening for the 2021 season very soon. Until then, stay safe; keep looking up.
Here's our latest newsletter! While we haven't much to report, we can at least look forward to a new year of stargazing. We hope to see you at the observatory again in 2021.
Val, Charlie, Terry, Terry, Anna, Robin & Cheryl, the COSMOS Committee
This has felt like a very long year with very little stargazing. It certainly wasn’t the second year the observatory’s team here on St Martin’s expected, but I can’t imagine we were alone in that! We made the hard but necessary decision to remain closed for the season, as we couldn’t be certain that we could ensure a safe experience. As I’ve said many times to many different people this year, telescope astronomy is a close-proximity activity. Perhaps if we were more established (and with a bigger pool of volunteers to help out running sessions), we could have managed it, somehow. Everything this year has been hard to predict. We missed not just using the observatory ourselves as a group, but also showing others around. Sharing our love of astronomy is, after all, our observatory’s raison d’etre.
To quote the great Stephen Hawking, ‘where there is life, there is hope’. As we look towards 2021, we must be hopeful that normal life will return to the observatory next April!
To the sky. December is the month of the annual Geminid meteor shower – a stunning light display of very bright shooting stars, reaching a rate of about 100 per hour at its peak over 13-14 December. As a bonus, this year’s peak coincides with a New Moon which means conditions for seeing are ideal! No equipment needed – other than possibly a blanket and a warm drink – just find somewhere dark, tilt your head back, and give it some time.
If there is one night that I’ve got everything crossed for it to be cloudless, it’s 21 December, the winter solstice. 2020’s longest night had better be a good one, because it plays host to the unrivalled planetary highlight of the whole entire year. Planetary giants Jupiter and Saturn will appear just 0.1 degrees apart – which means that you can view both, at once, through even a modest telescope! I’ve seen both, many times, through our ‘scopes at the observatory – both awe-inducing; even with binoculars on a clear night you can make out Jupiter’s stripes and Saturn’s rings. Trust me when I say that the chance to see both at once, with magnification, is simply not to be missed.
If you are still looking for a Christmas (or New Year) present for that stargazer in your life, then there’s one telescope I recommend this year! Island jeweller Fay Page has designed stunning telescope and star charms, available in silver or gold, which celebrate of the work of COSMOS. £5 from every purchase will go towards the observatory, and will hopefully help us ensure we have everything in place to open, safely, however it may be, next year.
However you choose to celebrate this year, I hope you have a fantastic time and the stars shine brightly for you! Thank you for all your support this year and we can’t wait to welcome visitors back to the observatory in 2021. Keep looking up!
Check out Fay Page’s Dark Skies collection here: https://www.faypage.co.uk/collections/dark-skies
It’s been a quiet season for us at the observatory, feeling strange not to open our doors every week to welcome in visitors to gaze on our Scilly skies. As I’ve written previously, we made the decision as a committee of volunteers to remain closed to the public this season, as it was clear that physical distancing within the site wasn’t possible.
If there’s any consolation for would-be visitors who missed out on a trip during the summer holidays, then it’s cloud! I can count on one hand the nights of good seeing we’ve had on St Martin’s during August. The peak of the annual Perseid meteor shower – a veritable light show in our dark skies – happened behind a sheet of cloud. Perhaps it’s payback for the fabulously clear skies we had in June and July. These made for some photographic beauties of Comet Neowise. (See the corker of a shot by James Faulconbridge, one of the new owners of the vineyard here on St Martin’s, turning the Daymark into a giant Roman candle!)
Shifting from Summer into Autumn always fills us astronomy folk with gleeful anticipation, as the nights draw in and the astronomy ‘season’ starts in earnest. On St Martin’s we’re sticking with naked eye astronomy for now, though I’ll update you with news as to our reopening plans as and when.
Ideally, this is the perfect time of year for gazing with nothing more than a pair of binoculars. If you’re after a rewarding area of sky to explore, look no further than the area between summer triangle constellations Cygnus and Vega. There are several open clusters of stars that you’ll pick up with a pair of binoculars, plus beautiful double star Albireo – with small magnification you can pick up the stunning contrast between its yellow and blue stars. Start off on Stellarium before heading out, or just lean back and scan the sky and see what you can find!
Looking East, Mars is now lovely and bright as it rises after darkness falls. It’s known as the red planet but really rather more… salmon paste (at least to me! See what you think). The surface of Mars is rich in iron oxide, our rusty neighbour. Who will get there next?
It’s also a super month for conjunctions – objects coming together in the night sky. The Moon and Mars get close and personal at the start of the month in the wee small hours, followed by Saturn and Jupiter floating above the waning Moon, at the slightly friendlier time of about 8pm, as September draws to a close.
As we face yet more uncertainty to come, I find myself returning to the certainty of vastness inherent in astronomy. While we might be one tiny blue dot in a vast universe, there’s hope in Carl Sagan’s famous words, ‘somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known’. Wherever you are and whatever you’re doing, we hope you can find some wonder in your night sky.
If there’s been one constant over the uncertain last few months, then it’s our beautiful night sky. There’s something timelessly reassuring – and vast – about astronomy that makes it a perfect lockdown tonic. Our Sun’s nearest star – Proxima Centauri – is just over 4 light years away. Nothing travels faster than light. 4 years travelling at the speed of light equates to a mere 24 trillion miles or so (St Martin’s, in comparison, is a dinky 1.5 miles long… or so).
We’ve been lucky to have enjoyed some stunningly clear Scilly nights here over the last few months. We’ve all been following government guidance about avoiding public gatherings, so there have been no observatory meetings. Astronomy – in our community – is a friendly and collaborative pursuit. There’s something special about joining with others to wonder at our night sky together. It’s worth remembering that without this shared joy, and collective effort, we wouldn’t have an observatory to begin with!
At this time of year, Scilly stargazing is for certified night owls. We’re in the lightest part of the year so you need to be up pretty (very) late to get a good look-in. That said, pre-dawn skies are particularly rewarding. My teething 9-month-old must be a born sky-watcher! We’ve witnessed several beautiful conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn due south east.
In the late night sky, from darkness onwards, try to locate the Summer Triangle – three bright stars – Altair, Deneb and Vega, each of which is the brightest star of its constellation (Aquila, Cygnus and Lyra, respectively). Tilt your head back and look straight up for that one – 11pm onwards.
We’re glad that visitors are able to return and appreciate these wonderful skies with us. However, the St Martin’s Observatory won’t be open to the public for the 2020 season. Our Tuesday evening and Friday afternoon sessions will resume in 2021.
Using a telescope under guidance is a close-proximity activity. It's not possible to maintain physical distance within the warm room or domes, and therefore we're not currently able to guarantee a safe experience for our visitors or our volunteer team.
The good news is that our Scilly skies are still just as pristine and the nights - if shorter - are still wondrously dark! We'll endeavour to post regular updates about what you can see in the Scilly night sky – please join our Facebook page (type in ‘COSMOS Scilly’ and we’ll be there).
We can't wait to welcome you back to the Observatory soon. Keep well, and keep looking up. And as challenging as 2020 has been so far, don’t forget - without the dark, we’d never see the stars.
A version of this article appears in Scilly Now & Then magazine's March/April 2020 edition.
Spring is on its way! Clouds begone! You don’t need to have a brain the size of Stephen Hawking’s to know that clouds plus stargazing equals zero. I won’t go on (again) about the weather; a let-up will be welcome.
One rare but utterly lovely clear night last month, a group of us ventured up to the observatory, as naturally we are wont to do when the opportunity arises. Partly this was administrative: I’d had word that our smaller telescope was playing up and wouldn’t point where it was supposed to. If a go-to telescope doesn’t go-to where it’s supposed to go to, it’s a) a problem and b) annoying. You can’t easily solve alignment issues during the daytime when you’d like to, nor on a cloudy night as you need to be able to actually see to verify the celestial objects you’re supposed to be looking at. None of us that night wanted to tinker, we wanted to be wowed. And gladly there ends the non-anecdote, as said telescope was fully functional. Nothing is ever perfect in our corner of amateur astronomy (we're all learning rapidly), but workable is a huge relief. In any case, after being underwhelmed by bright Venus (it’s so bright that, even with a filter, magnification doesn’t add much), we set our sights on some lovely deep sky objects, including our nearest galaxy, Andromeda.
A galaxy is - to cut a long story short - a big old group of stars bound together by gravity. Think of them as cosmic super-factories, creating on a grand scale. Ours is the Milky Way, comprising some 250 billion stars, our Sun one of the distinctly average thereof. But the Milky Way is only the second-largest in a cluster of some 50 other galaxies known as the Local Group. I say group, we’re pretty far apart. Andromeda’s the nearest to us and that’s a tidy 2.5 million light years away from Earth. (That would be approximately 23,651,826,000,000,000,000 km... to ground you, a walk around the entire coast path on St Martin's comes in at less than 10km.) The whole of the Local Group spans about 10 million light years across (don't make me write it). There’s nothing like astronomy to put you in your place!
There’s a particularly interesting patch of sky on view right now, known as the Realm of Galaxies, less fantastically as the Coma/Virgo Supercluster. It’s the galactic heartland of the Local Group, and now is a very good time to go on that deep sky tour you’ve always fancied. Sadly you won’t see galaxies with the naked eye – you’ll need a decent-sized telescope.
Located between constellations Virgo and Coma Berenices, you’ll find this richly populated region in the Eastern sky after 10pm. Locate Spica, Virgo’s brightest and distinctly blue-hued; to its left find Bootes’ brightest, orangey Arcturus (incidentally an ageing 7.1bn old red supergiant). Join a line between the two and then imagine a point forming the tip of an equilateral triangle above – this points to the area of the Realm of Galaxies. If you don’t have a telescope, you’ll just have to make do with imagining the many worlds out there. Still: humbling.
If you’d like to join us (and our telescopes), the observatory on St Martin’s is open again from April. Regular openings are Tuesday nights, 8-10pm, and Friday afternoons, 2-4pm. We recommend booking in advance so email email@example.com if you’d like to come along.